The technology of laser lights and related devices is increasingly on the rise. This has seen several additional producers of devices that work on the principle of laser light. Generally, lasers categorize by their gain medium and can be organized by their radiating species that bring that stimulated emission. These species usually include molecules and atoms found in gas, liquid solutions, and semiconductor materials. Ultimately, this is what brings a significant difference in lasers’ types as liquid, gas, semiconductor, and solid-state.

Despite this extensive list, some common industries that are producing lasers major in the semiconductor types. , which are usually known as laser diodes. And the lists of companies majoring in these are endless, with one of the commonest known as Excelitas.  Moreover, the Excelitas laser comes in various models and types with some of the best laser diodes the world has ever seen. When it comes to laser technology, Excelitas is simply unmatched.

Otherwise, for general knowledge, this article will address the extensive applications of different types of lasers and their working principles. Lasing will take place in a variety of media output characteristics that brings a greater degree of variation. Also crucial to note is that the concentration of radiating species like the semiconductor is responsible for the medium’s energy level’s buildup. Here is detailed information about each of them.

Semiconductor Lasers

As aforementioned, it is clear that one of the most popular lasers is the semiconductor type. Additionally, the article connotes the renowned producer of semiconductor lasers is Excelitas. This company tops the list with its quality products that come in a range of models. Excelitas lasers, just like those of other companies, are often referred to as laser diodes. This name comes with the necessary scientific application of current flowing in the forward direction of the junction.

A semiconductor can have some good reflectivity to act independently due to the large refractive index difference in the materials and air. Laser diodes are getting to be more and more popular today. Part of this is due to the compact laser design, electrical pumping, and the maturity of their manufacturing process. Not only those, but these devices have high power, highly efficient, are small in size, and work flawlessly with electronic components.

While these devices are famous in their application field, it is quite unfortunate that they run to some limitations. That is why they are not as important as the other class of lasers like the gas. They are useful in applications like optical fiber communication and optical data storage and serve as pumping sources for solid-state lasers.

Gas Lasers

These are the type of lasers that use a voltage across the ceramic tube and a glass with a gas mixture or gas low-pressure gas to produce a collection of inversion. They create that upper laser level with the voltage, which has an electric field with the tube to induce an electrical current. Due to these electrons’ collision with the gas atoms, they compel them to higher energy levels. In turn, the higher energy levels will serve as the upper laser level because the radiating species are dilute and will result in laser transitions with very narrow spectral bandwidths and work correctly at specific wavelengths.

The existence of various gaseous media in this operation leads to comprehensive operating wavelength alternatives. These can range from HeNe laser, MIR range for CO2 lasers and argon ions. In general, gas lasers are applicable in a wide range of areas but have been historically used in the medical and surgery markets. They are also instrumental in the manufacturing industry, for example, in laser cutting and marking. Due to their high efficiency and versatility, they produce high-quality items no other laser can match.

Solid-State Lasers

These are the specific lasers whose medium gain has an active ion species used as the impurities in a transparent host material. In line with light-matter interactions in lasers, the required materials for lasing should have spectrally narrow transition cross-sections, a long-lived metastable state, and strong absorption bands used in pumping. For the user to prevent loss of desired characteristics, these ions must be protected by all means possible.

For the desired results to be achieved, the host material for solid-state gain medium must combine microscopic lattice components and macroscopic thermal, mechanical, and optical properties. And the host materials can take different levels, such as a crystal, a ceramic, glasses, or any other organic matter. But it is excellent to note that they generally fall into two categories: crystals and glasses. Crystal hosts are highly applicable because of the distinct benefits they come with, such as their lower laser thresholds, narrower laser linewidths, and many more.

Solid-state lasers come in a range of varieties due to a range of host materials available for use. With this, it is right to say that solid-state lasers can have large gain bandwidths with the possibility of broad wavelength tenability. Since solid-state lasers are highly flexible, they are used in various applications ranging from light detection and multiphoton microscopy. Furthermore, these lasers are also perfect in material processing, cutting, marking, and even laser fusion.

Liquid Lasers

Some organic dye molecules can work as perfect radiating species for lasing. That is because they have enough long lifetimes in their topmost energy levels to radiate energy from that high level instead of losing power due to collisions. The dye molecules will be dissolved in a solvent concentration to ensure the proper engagement or radiating species are available. Dye lasers can work with either a laser or a flash lamp, and due to their solution form, the system in question is called a liquid dye laser.

Their broad gaining bandwidth and the frequency-selective element allow for a wide tenability and narrow spectral bandwidth. Traditionally, dye lasers have been used for spectroscopic applications. One drawback which can limit their popularity is the demand they come with requiring maintenance. Part of this is because the dye decomposes when dissolved, and that is why other lasers with nonlinear frequency conversions have replaced them in many application requirements.